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ARM Large-Scale Forcing

ARM continuous forcing

• Xie, S., R. T. Cederwall, and M. H. Zhang, 2004: Developing long-term single-column model/cloud system-resolving model forcing using numerical weather prediction products constrained by surface and top of the atmosphere observations. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D01104, doi:10.1029/2003JD004045.
• Tang, S., Xie, S., Zhang, M., et al., 2019: Differences in eddy-correlation and energy-balance surface turbulent heat flux measurements and their impacts on the large-scale forcing fields at the ARM SGP Site, J. Geophys. Res.-Atm., 124(6), 3301-3318, doi:10.1029/2018jd029689.

IOP forcing

• Tang, S., S. Xie, et al. 2016: Large-scale vertical velocity, diabatic heating and drying profiles associated with seasonal and diurnal variations of convective systems observed in the GoAmazon 2014/5 experiment, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 2016, 1-39, doi: 10.5194/acp-2016-644.
• Xie, S., T. Hume, C. Jakob, et al. 2010: Observed large-scale structures and diabatic heating and drying profiles during TWP-ICE, J. climate, 23, 57-79, doi:10.1175/2009JCLI3071.1.
• Xie, S., Y. Zhang, S. E. Giangrande, et al. 2014: Interactions between cumulus convection and its environment as revealed by the MC3E sounding array. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, 11784–11808, doi: 10.1002/2014JD022011.
• Xie, S., S. Klein, M. Zhang, et al. 2006: Developing large-scale forcing data for single-column and cloud-resolving models from the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D19104, doi:10.1029/2005JD006950.

Ensemble forcing data

• Zhang, Y., S. A. Klein, J. Fan, et al. 2017: Large-eddy simulation of shallow cumulus clouds over land: A composite case based on ARM long-term observations at its Southern Great Plains site. J. Atmos. Sci., 74, 3229-3251, doi: 10.1175/JAS-D-16-0317.1.
• Tang, S., M. Zhang, and S. Xie, 2015: An ensemble constrained variational analysis of atmospheric forcing data and its application to evaluate clouds in CAM5. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 121, 33–48, doi: 10.1002/2015JD024167.

3D forcing

• Tang, S., and M. Zhang, 2015: Three-dimensional constrained variational analysis: Approach and application to analysis of atmospheric diabatic heating and derivative fields during an ARM SGP intensive observational period, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120(15), 7283-7299, doi: 10.1002/2015JD023621.
• Tang, S., M. Zhang, and S. Xie, 2016: An ensemble constrained variational analysis of atmospheric forcing data and its application to evaluate clouds in CAM5, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 121(1), 33-48, doi: 10.1002/2015JD024167.

Forcing with sigma vertical coordinate

• Tang, S., S. Xie, M. Zhang and S. Endo, 2019: Improving constrained variational analysis with sloping terrain and the impact on shallow-cumulus clouds in Large-Eddy Simulations, to be submitted to Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres.


• Xie, S., and 16-coauthors, 2010: Clouds and more: ARM climate modeling best estimate data. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 91, 13–20. doi:10.1175/2009BAMS2891.1.


• Tang, Q., S. Xie, Y. Zhang, et al. 2018: Heterogeneity in warm-season land-atmosphere coupling over the U.S. Southern Great Plains, J. Geophys. Res.-Atm., 123, 7867-7882, doi:10.1029/2018JD028463.


• Zhao, C. S. Xie, S. Klein, et al., 2012: Toward understanding of differences in current cloud retrievals of ARM Ground-based Measurements. J. Geophys. Res., 117, D10206, DOI: 10.1029/2011JD016792.

ARM Cloud Simulator

• Zhang, Y., S. Xie, S. A. Klein, et al., 2018: The ARM cloud radar simulator for global climate models: Bridging field data and climate models, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 99, 21-26, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-16-0258.1.

ARM Diagnostics Package

• Zhang, C., S. Xie, S. A. Klein, et al., 2018: CAUSES: Diagnosis of the Summertime Warm Bias in CMIP5 Climate Models at the ARM Southern Great Plains Site, J. Geophys. Res.-Atm., 123, 2968-2992, doi:10.1002/2017JD027200.

Science Applications Led by Team Members

GCSS/ARM SCM and CRM Intercomparison Study

• Xie, S., et al., 2002: Intercomparison and Evaluation of Cumulus Parameterization under Summertime Midlatitude Continental Conditions. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 128, 1095-1136.
• Xie, S., and 24 co-authors, 2005: Simulations of midlatitude frontal clouds by SCMs and CSRMs during the ARM March 2000 Cloud IOP. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D15S03, doi:10.1029/2004JD005119.
• Klein et al. 2009: Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. Part I: Single layer cloud, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., . Soc., 135: 979-1002. DOI:10.1002/qi.416.

Other Studies

• Tao, C., Y. Zhang, S. Tang, Q. Tang, H. Ma, S. Xie, and M. Zhang, 2019: Regional moisture budget and land-atmosphere coupling over the US Sothern Great Plains inferred from the ARM long-term observations. J. Geophys. Res., in revision.
• Tang, S., M. Zhang, and S. Xie, 2017: Investigating the Scale Dependence of SCM Simulated Precipitation and Clouds by Using Gridded Forcing Data at SGP. J. Geophys. Res., 122, 8724–8738, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017JD026565.
• Chen, X., Q. Tang, S. Xie, and C. Zhao, 2015: A variance-based decomposition and global sensitivity index method for uncertainty quantification: Application to retrieved ice cloud properties. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120, 4234–4247. doi: 10.1002/2014JD022750.
• Zhao, C., S. Xie, X. Chen, M. Jensen, and M. Dunn, 2014: Quantifying uncertainties of cloud microphysical property retrievals with a perturbation method. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, 5375-5385. doi:10.1002/2013JD021112.
• Xie, S., X. Liu, C. Zhao, and Y. Zhang, 2013: Sensitivity of CAM5 Simulated Arctic Clouds and Radiation to Ice Nucleation, J. Climate. 26, 5981-5999, DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00517.1.
• Zhao, C., S. A. Klein, S. Xie, X. Liu, J. S. Boyle, and Y. Zhang, 2012: Aerosol First Indirect effects on non-precipitating low-level liquid cloud properties as simulated by CAM5 at ARM sites, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L08806, doi:10.1029/2012GL051213.
• Xie, S., J. Boyle, S. A. Klein, X. Liu and S. Ghan, 2008: Simulations of Arctic Mixed-Phase Clouds in Forecasts with CAM3 and AM2 for M-PACE, Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, D04211, doi:10.1029/2007JD009225.
• Xie, S., et al., 2006: An assessment of ECMWF analyses and model forecasts over the North Slope of Alaska using observations from the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D05107, doi:10.1029/2005JD006509.
• Xie, S., M. H. Zhang, J. S. Boyle, R. T. Cederwall, G. L. Potter, and W. Y. Lin, 2004: Impact of a revised convective triggering mechanism on CAM2 model simulations: results from short-range weather forecasts. J. Geophys. Res. 109, D14102, doi:10.1029/2004JD004692.
• Xie, S., R. T. Cederwall, M. H. Zhang, and J. J. Yio, 2003: Comparison of SCM and CSRM Forcing Data Derived from the ECMWF Model and From Objective Analysis at the ARM SGP Site. J. Geophys. Res., 108 (D16), 4499, doi:10.1029/2003JD003541.
• Xie, S., and M. H. Zhang, 2000: Impact of the Convection triggering Function on Single-Column Model Simulations. J. Geophys. Res., 105, 14983-14996.

Other applications involved in LLNL ARM Infrastructure Team


• Feldman, D. R., W. D. Collins, S.C. Biraud, M.D. Risser, D.D. Turner, P.J. Gero, S. Xie, E.J. Mlawer, T.R Shippert, L.D. Riihimaki, E.J. Dlugokency, P.C. Novelli, D. Helmig, J. Hueber, M. S. Torn, 2018: First observation of CH4 surface radiative forcing and its thermodynamic dependence, Nature Geoscience. 11, 238-241. DOI:10.1038/s41561-018-0085-9.
• Ma, H.-Y., S. A. Klein, S. Xie, et al. 2018: CAUSES: On the role of surface energy budget errors to the warm surface air temperature error over the Central U.S. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 123, 2888–2909. DOI: 10.1002/2017JD027194.
• Van Weverberg,K., C. J. Morcrette, J. Petch, S. A. Klein, H.-Y. Ma, C. Zhang, S. Xie, Q. Tang, W. I. Gustafson, Y. Qian, L. K. Berg, M. Wang, Y. Liu, M. Ahlgrimm,R. Forbes, E. Bazile, R. Roehrig, J. Cole, W. Merryfield, W.-S. Lee, F. Cheruy,L. Mellul, Y.-C. Wang, K. Johnson, and M. Khaiyer, 2018: CAUSES: Attribution of surface radiation biases in NWP and climate models near the U.S. Southern Great Plains. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 123, 3612–3644. DOI: 10.1002/2017JD027188.
• Morcrette, C. J., and coauthors including H.-Y. Ma, 2018: Introduction to CAUSES: Near-surface temperature errors in NWP and climate model 5-day hindcasts near the Southern Great Plains. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 123, 2655–2683. DOI: 10.1002/2017JD027199.


• Phillips, T. J., S. A. Klein, H. Ma, Q. Tang, S. Xie, I. N. Williams, J. A. Santanello, D. R. Cook, and M. S. Torn, 2017: Using ARM observations to evaluate climate model simulations of land-atmosphere coupling on the U.S. Southern Great Plains. J. Geophys. Res., 122, 11, 524–11, 548.
• Giangrande, S. E., Z. Feng, M. P. Jensen, J. Comstock…, S. Xie, …, 2017: Cloud characteristics, thermodynamic controls and radiative impacts during the Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) experiment, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14519-14541.
• Ciesielski, P. E., R. H. Johnson, X. Jiang, Y. Zhang, and S. Xie, 2017: Relationships between radiation,clouds, and convection during DYNAMO, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 122, 2529–2548, doi:10.1002/2016JD025965.


• Zhang, M., Somerville, R.C. and Xie, S., 2016. The SCM Concept and Creation of ARM Forcing Datasets. Meteorological Monographs, 57, pp.24-1. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/AMSMONOGRAPHS-D-15-0040.1.


• Jensen, M.P., W.A. Petersen, A. Bansemer, N. Bharadwaj, L.D. Carey, D.J. Cecil, S.M. Collis, A.D. Del Genio, B. Dolan, J. Gerlach, S.E. Giangrande, A. Heymsfield, G. Heymsfield, P. Kollias, T.J. Lang, S.W. Nesbitt, A. Neumann, M. Poellot, S.A. Rutledge, M. Schwaller, A. Tokay, C.R. Williams, D.B. Wolff, S. Xie, and E.J. Zipser, 2015: The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E). Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., in press, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00228.1.
• Muhlbauer, A., T. P. Ackerman, R. P. Lawson, S. Xie, and Y. Zhang, 2015: Evaluation of cloud-resolving model simulations of midlatitude cirrus with ARM and A-train observations, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120, 6597–6618, doi:10.1002/2014JD022570.
• Vogelmann, A. M., A. M. Fridlind, T. Toto, S. Endo, W. Lin, J. Wang, S. Feng, Y. Zhang, D. D. Turner, Y. Liu, Z. Li, S. Xie, A. S. Ackerman, M. Zhang, and M. Khairoutdinov, 2015: RACORO continental boundary layer cloud investigations: 1. Case study development and ensemble large-scale forcings. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120, 5962–5992. doi: 10.1002/2014JD022713.
• Jensen, M. P., Toto, T., Troyan, D., Ciesielski, P. E., Holdridge, D., Kyrouac, J., Schatz, J., Zhang, Y., and Xie, S., 2015: The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) sounding network: operations, processing and analysis, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 421-434, doi:10.5194/amt-8-421-2015.


• Petch, J., A. Hill, L. Davis, A. Fridlind, C. Jakob, Y. Lin, S. Xie, and P. Zhu, 2014: Evaluation of intercomparison of four different types of model simulating TWP-ICE, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 140, 826-837, DOI: 10.1002/qj.2192.


• Lin, Y., M. Zhao, Y. Ming, J-C. Golaz, L. J. Donner, S. A. Klein, V. Ramaswamy, and S. Xie, 2013: Precipitation partitioning, tropical clouds and intraseasonal variability in GFDL AM2. J. Clim., J. Climate, 26, 5453–5466. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00442.1.
• Davies, L.,et al. (including S. Xie), 2013: A Single Column Model Ensemble approach applied to the TWP-ICE experiment. J. Geophys. Res., 118, 6544-6563, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50450.
• Davies, L. C. Jakob, V. Kumar, P. May and S. Xie, 2013: Relationships between the large-scale atmosphere and the small-scale state for Darwin, Australia. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118, 11,534–11,545, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50645.


• Qian Y, CN Long, H Wang, JM Comstock, SA McFarlane, and S Xie. 2012: Evaluation of Cloud Fraction and Its Radiative Effect Simulated by IPCC AR4 Global Models Against ARM Surface Observations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 1785-1810. DOI:10.5194/acp-12-1785-2012.
• Fridlind, A., et al. (including S. Xie), 2012: A Cloud-Resolving Model Intercomparison Based on the Tropical Warm Pool–International Cloud Experiment, Part I: Specification and Results versus Domain-Wide Observations. J. Geophys. Res., 117, D05204 DOI: 10.1029/2011JD016595.
• Huang, D., C. Zhao, M. Dunn, X. Dong, G. G. Mace, M. P. Jensen, S. Xie, and Y. Liu, 2012: An intercomparison of radar-based liquid cloud microphysics retrievals and implication for model evaluation studies. Atmos. Meas. Tech., 5, 1409-1424 DOI: 10.5194/amt-5-1409-2012.
• Lin, Y., L. J. Donner, J. Petch, P. Bechtold, J. Boyle, S. A. Klein, T. Komori, K. Wapler, M. Willett, X. Xie, M. Zhao, S. Xie, S. A. MaFarlane, C. Schumacher, 2012: TWP-ICE global atmospheric model intercomparison: Convection responsiveness and resolution impact. J. Geophys. Res., 117, D09111, doi: 10.1029/2011JD017018.
• Chuang, C. C., J. Kelly, J. Boyle, and S. Xie, 2012: Sensitivity of Aerosol Indirect Effects to Cloud Nucleation and Autoconversion Parameterizations in Short-Range Weather Forecasts over the Southern Great Plains During May 2003 IOP. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, DOI: 10.1029/2012MS000161.


• Liu, X.,S. Xie, J. Boyle, S. A. Klein, X. Shi, Z. Wang, W. Lin, S. J. Ghan, M. Earle, P. S. K. Liu, and A. Zelenyuk1, 2011: Testing Cloud Microphysics Parameterizations in NCAR CAM5 with ISDAC and M-PACE Observations. J. Geophys. Res., 116, D00T11, doi:10.1029/2011JD015889.
• Zeng, X., W. Tao, T. Matsui, S. Xie, S. Lang, M. Zhang, D. Starr, and X. Li 2011: Estimating the ice crystal enhancement factor in the tropics. J. Atmos. Sci. 68, 1424-1434.
24. McFarquhar, G., S. Ghan, et al. (including S. Xie), 2011: Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC): The Impact of Arctic Aerosols on Clouds, Bull. Amer. Meteor., 10.1175/2010BAMS2935.1.
• Kennedy, A., X. Dong, B. Xi, S. Xie, Y. Zhang, and J. Chen, 2011: A Comparison of MERRA and NARR Reanalysis Datasets with the DOE ARM SGP Continuous Forcing data. J. climate, 24 4541-4557 .175/2011JCLI3978.1.


• Woolnough, S. J., P. N. Blossey, K.-M. Xu, P. Bechtold, J.-P. Chaboureau, T. Hosomi, S.F. Iacobellis, Y. Luo, J. C. Petch, R. Y. Wong, and S. Xie, 2010: Modeling convective processes during the suppressed phase of a Madden-Julian Oscillation: Comparing single-column models with cloud-resolving models. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc.,136, 333-353, DOI:10.1002/qj.568.


• Wang, W., X. Liu, S. Xie, J. Boyle, and S. McFarlane, 2009: Testing ice microphysics parameterizations in NCAR CAM3 using TWP-ICE data, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D14107, doi:10.1029/2008JD011220.
• Zeng, X., W. Tao, M.Zhang, A. Hou, S. Xie, S. Lang, X. li, D. Starr, and X. Li, 2009: A contribution by ice neclei to global warming. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 135, 1614-1629. DOI:10.1002/qj.449.
• 2. Klein et al. (including S. Xie) 2009: Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. Part I: Single layer cloud, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., . Soc., 135: 979-1002. DOI:10.1002/qi.416.
• Marrison et al. (including S. Xie) 2009: Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. Part II: Multi-layered cloud, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 135: DOI:10.1002/qj.415.
• Zeng, X., W. Tao, S. Xie et al., 2009: The indirect effect of ice nuclei on atmospheric radiation. J. Atmos. Sci. 66, 41-61.


• Guo, H., J. Penner, M. Herzog, and S. Xie, 2007: Investigation of the first and second aerosol indirect effects on clouds during the May 2003 ARM intensive operational period at Southern Great Plains. J. Geophys. Res. 112, D15206, doi:10.1029/2006JD007173.
• Zeng, X., W. Tao, S. Xie et al., 2007: Evaluation of long-term cloud resolving modeling with observational cloudy data. J. Atmos. Sci. 64, 4153-4177.
• Liu, X., S. Xie, and S. J. Ghan, 2007: Evaluation of a new mixed-Phase cloud microphysics parameterization with the NCAR single column climate model (SCAM) and ARM M-PACE observations, Geophysical Research Letter, 34, L23712, doi:10.1029/2007GL031446, 2007.


• Klein, S., X. Jiang, J. Boyle, S. Malyshev, S. Xie, 2006: Diagnosis of the summertime warm and dry bias over the U. S. Southern Great Plains in the GFDL climate model using a weather forecasting approach. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L18805, doi:10.1029/2006GL027567.


• Xu, K.-M., M. H. Zhang, …, S. Xie et al., 2005:.Modeling springtime shallow and deep frontal clouds with CRMs and SCMs. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D15S04, doi:10.1029/2004JD005153.
• Williamson, D. L., et al., and S. Xie, 2005: Moisture and temperature budgets at the ARM SGP site in forecasts with CAM2. J. Geophys. Res., 110 doi:10.1029/2004JD005109.
• Zhang, M. H., W. Y. Lin, et al, and S. Xie, 2005: Comparing clouds and their variations in 10 atmospheric general circulation models with satellite measurements. J. Geophys. Res., 110 doi:10.1029/2004JD005021.

Before 2005

• Phillips, T. J., et al., and S. Xie, 2004: The CCPP-ARM Parameterization Testbed (CAPT): Where climate simulation meet with weather prediction. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,85, 1903-1915.
• Xu, K.-M., R. T. Cederwall et al., and S. Xie, 2002: An Intercomparison of cloud-resolving models with the ARM summer 1997 IOP data. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 128, 593-624.
• Waliser, D. E., J. Ridout, S. Xie, and M. Zhang, 2002: A Model Assessment of the Variational Objective Analysis: Implications for Atmospheric Field Programs. J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 3436-3456.
• Zhang M. H., J. L. Lin, R. Cederwall, J. Yio, and S.C. Xie, 2001: Objective Analysis of ARM IOP Data: Method, Features, and Sensitivity. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129, 295 – 311.
• Ghan S., et al., and S. Xie, 2000: An Intercomparison of Single Column Model Simulations of Summertime Midlatitude Continental Convection. J. Geophys. Res., 105, 2091-2121.